Sumgal is a now-deserted town , (36° 11' 58 N, 78° 46' 50 E) in the Karakash River valley in Ladakh in Kashmir. In 1857, the explorer Robert Schlagintweit crossed the Hindutash pass from the camping grounds in Sumgal ( from Gsum Rgal meaning "three fords" in Ladakhi ), on the banks of the Karakash river, approximately 7 miles upstream from Sumgal in Ladakh and estimated its height to be 17,879 feet.The pass cuts through the Kun Lun mountain range connecting Sumgal, (36° 11' 58 N, 78° 46' 50 E) in the Karakash River valley to the town of Pusha, (36.3833° N, 79° E), formerly Bushia, in the Yurungkash River valley, in the territory of Khotan and also connects to the road to the city of Khotan. (See maps on right.) At the top of the Hindutash pass (36° 16' 23 N, 78° 46' 50 E), there is a steep glacier with many crevasses. The eastern Kunlun range, which is in the southern border of the Khotan , is cut by two other passes: the Sanju Pass near the town of Shahidulla, where the Maharaja of Kashmir had built a fort in exercise of his sovereignty in that area of Kashmir northwest of Hindutash, and the Yangi or Ilchi Pass, southeast of Hindutash in the northern part of the Aksai Chin area in Ladakh (see second map on right). The Hindutash pass has been used historically as the point of entry into India Proper from the ancient Indian Kingdom of Khotan which only explains the literal meaning of the name Hindutash signifying border post . The latter was traversed in 1865 by W. H. Johnson of the Survey of India. W.H. Johnson’s survey established certain important points. Brinjga was in his view the boundary post ( a few miles south east of Karanghu Tagh in Ladakh ), thus implying that the boundary lay along the Kuen Lun Range. Johnson’s findings demonstrated that the whole of the Kara Kash valley was an integral part of the territory of Kashmir . He noted where the Chinese boundary post was accepted. At Yangi Langar, three marches from Khotan, he noticed that there was a few fruit trees at this place which originally was a post or guard house of the Chinese. According to Johnson, “the last portion of the route to Shadulla (Shahidulla) ( which includes the Sumgal area) is particularly pleasant, being the whole of the Karakash valley which is wide and even, and shut in either side by rugged mountains. On this route I noticed numerous extensive plateaux near the river, covered with wood and long grass. These being within the territory of the Maharaja of Kashmir, could easily be brought under cultivation by Ladakhees and others, if they could be induced and encouraged to do so by the Kashmeer Government. The establishment of villages and habitations on this river would be important in many points of view, but chiefly in keeping the route open from the attacks of the Khergiz robbers.” "Hindu-tagh" means "Indian Mountain," and "Hindu-tash," "Indian stone" in the Uyghur dialect of East Turkistan.